Karlugh Turk


Establishment of Pakhli Sarkar

Tha Karlugh Turk,having a central Asian orging,became the ruling class of (Hazara Division) Continue reading


The Democrat ‘Sultan’ of Kazakhstan

“Today, without dramatizing the situation in those years, I openly declare you that in the beginning of the 1990’s, we were on the edge of a cliff.” This sentence was uttered by Nursultan Nazarbayev ten years after the declaration of independence of Kazakhstan. Continue reading

Children of the White Mother Wolf

The production of four documentary films from a cycle “Turks of Russia”, about the people of Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Tuva and Khakassia was finalized on the cinema studio “Mir”.

Users of the portal of Russian Geographic Continue reading

Turkestan and the Fate of the Russian Empire

The central argument of this book is that the half-century of Russian rule in Central Asia was shaped by traditions of authoritarian rule, by Russian national interests, and by a civic reform agenda that brought to Turkestan the principles that informed Alexander II’s reform policies. This civilizing mission sought to lay the foundations for a rejuvenated, ‘modern’ empire, unified by imperial citizenship, patriotism, and a shared secular culture. Evidence for Brower’s thesis is drawn from major archives in Uzbekistan Continue reading

The Duab of Turkestan

W. Rickmer Rickmers (1873–1965) was a German explorer and mountaineer who visited and explored central Asia five times between 1894 and 1906. This book provides an account of his travels in the area he calls Turkestan, which incorporates modern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and south-west Kazakhstan, and was first published in 1913. The region, which contains the ancient cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, had not been previously described in so much detail by a western European traveller. Continue reading

Alpamysh: central Asian identity under Russian rule

Alpamysh is a Turkic dastan — ornate oral history — and prime representative of the Turkic oral literature of Central Asia. It is the principal repository of ethnic identity, history, customs, and the value systems of its owners and composers. Set mostly in verse, the Alpamysh dastan is known and recited from the eastern Altai to the western Ural mountain ranges and as far south as Band-e Turkestan. It commemorates the Turkic people’s struggles for freedom. The events leading to the composition Continue reading

‘Basmachi’: Turkistan National Liberation Movement 1916-1930s

The “formal” beginning of the “Basmachi” movement is usually associated with the tsarist Imperial Decree of 25 June 1916, which ordered the first non-voluntary recruitment of Central Asians into the army during the First World War. The movement was a reaction not only to conscription, Continue reading

Indian Revolutionaries as Metaphor in Modern Uzbek Literature

“Weary of struggles, I, the great rebel,

Shall rest in quiet only when I find

The sky and the air free of the piteous groans of the oppressed

Only when the battle fields are cleared of jingling bloody sabres

Shall I, weary of struggles, rest in quiet, Continue reading

Declaration of 10th Summit of the Heads of the Turkic Speaking States

Declaration of 10th Summit of the Heads of the Turkic Speaking States (İstanbul, 16 September 2010)

President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of the Kyrgyz Republic Roza Otunbayeva, President of the Republic of Turkey Abdullah Gül and President of Turkmenistan Continue reading

Their Contribution in the Development of Hindustani

Turkic Languages

Their Contribution in the Development of Hindustani

by K Gajendra Singh

The term Hindustan has been used consciously so as to include Pakistan in it, by which name the Sub-continent was known before its partition in 1947. This paper concentrates mainly on languages as spoken Continue reading

Turkish Language Must Be Official Language In Iran

Iran Is Not Persia

Iran, like it´s neighbours such Iraq and Afghanistan, is a multi national and multi cultural society.

Inside Iran, whether it be Persians (also reffered to as the Fars), Azerbaijanis Turks Continue reading

The Timuries As Builders

Timur was not only a great conqueror; he was also a great builder. Whenever he laid waste to a city that stood in the path of his army, he would bring back the artisans to build his royal city of Samarqand. “There were sculptors, stone-masons and stucco-workers from Azerbaijan, Isfahan and Delhi; Mosaic-workers from Shiraz; weavers, glass-blowers and potters from Damascus – in such numbers that ‘the city was not big enough to hold them. Continue reading

Eight years of ISAF operations in Afghanistan. Who are the winners?

The Enduring Freedom operation was launched in the night of October 7, 2001. International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF), operating under NATO, have been present in Afghanistan for already 8 years. ISAF are represented by 39 countries, both inside and outside NATO.

Continue reading

Turkey is looking increasingly outward, but not in our direction

Twenty years ago the democratic revolutions in East and Central Europe prompted the first great-power retreat in the continent since the end of the Second World War. Hundreds of thousands of Russian troops, supported by generous German funding, decamped for home, to be followed by many more after the Soviet Union itself collapsed. Continue reading

Qizilbash people of Afghanistan

The Qizilbash are Turkic-speaking Azerbaijani background, united in their belief in Twelver Shia Islam.

Kizilbash are Azeri Turks tribes mainly from Anatolia and Azerbaijan. The main different of Qizilbash Oghuz tribes with other Turkic people is that they are Shia Turkic people. Therefore the name Qizilbash is usually applied to them only. Continue reading

Uzbek Kurash Gains World Appraisal

The history of the Uzbek Kurash goes deep in 3500 years. It was born in the territory of Movarounnahr. Centuries ago the young men of this land gave an enjoyable moment to the local people with wrestling (Kurash) during national holidays and weddings. Kurash essentially means to win in а right way.

2500 years ago outstanding Greek philosopher and historian Herodotus said in his dairy that Kurash was the part of the traditions and costumes of Uzbeks. Kurash was named as the most favorable sports in the ancient Uzbek folk poem Alpomish.   Continue reading

Alparslan’s grave to be searched

Alparslan’s grave to be searched

Turkey will search for the grave of Seljuki Sultan Alparslan. 

The grave is predicted to be in Merv region of Turkmenistan’s Mari city.

A delegation that includes Culture and Tourism Ministry Undersecretary İsmet Yılmaz, Turkish History Institute’s Chief Ali Birinc, Professor Yusuf Halaçoğlu and some other scientists has held contacts in Turkmenistan’s capital Ashkhabad.

The delegation will visit the Merv region, the capital of Seljuk State once upon a time, on Wednesday.

Must We Rewrite Ancient History?

[Author of What Strange Mystery Unites the Turkish Nations, India, Catholicism, and Mexico?]

Have you ever wanted to know what mankind’s civilizations looked like before the Great Flood? At last you can. They’re being uncovered right now in Turkey and other parts of Central Asia.

We humans have been wrongly conditioned to regard such countries as Sumeria, Greece, Egypt, and China as the parents of all human civilizations. Continue reading

Are American Indians Turkish?

Introducion, Editor’s Note: For almost ten years, Viewzone has been proud to introduce readers to the exceptional and often controversial work of Gene Matlock. Gene has been credited with, almost single handedly, focusing historians and archaeoligists on the cultural similarities between the indigenous people of Mexico, past and present, and the ancient cultures of India and Turkey.

Continue reading

Turkistan Folklore music

Turkistan Folklore music

Turkistan, historic region of central Asia

Turkistan, historic region of central Asia

China’s conquest of E Turkistan, meanwhile, opened the way for Chinese
travel through Turkistan to India and permitted the introduction of
Buddhism in oases along the trade routes in an attempt to convert the
warlike nomads to a pacifist philosophy. With the fall (220) of the Han
dynasty, however, China lost control of E Turkistan to Persia, which
ruled the region between the 3d and 4th cent. and introduced
Zoroastrianism . When China reestablished control there in the middle
of the 7th cent., it came into contact with Persia, which, under the
Sassanids, occupied nearly all the rest of Turkistan except the central

The Persian holdings were swept away by the Arab invasion of the 8th
cent.; first the Umayyad and then the Abbasid caliphate held all of
Turkistan. Zoroastrianism was suppressed, and Islam, which today
remains the chief religion of Turkistan, was imposed. The Abbasid
caliphate weakened in the middle of the 9th cent.; at the same time,
China lost its holdings in the east, and many states, notably Khwarazm
(Khorezm), occupied parts of Turkistan.

The Seljuk Turks began moving into the region from the 8th cent. Their
language was adopted by most of the peoples there (with the notable
exception of the Tajiks), but the Turks themselves tended to adopt the
Iranian culture, which in fact was the dominant culture of Turkistan
until the 20th cent. All of Turkistan fell to the Mongols in the late
13th cent., and the territory was mostly bestowed upon the khan Jagatai
. Timur conquered Turkistan in the late 14th cent., pushing the Mongols
into the steppes of Kazakhstan. After Timur’s death (1405), his
successors, the Timurids , controlled much of the territory for about a
century. The later internal history of Turkistan is mainly one of
prolonged struggle involving the khanates of Khiva, Bukhara, and Kokand
and the nomadic peoples of the region, most notably Kyrgyz, Kazakhs,
Turkmens, and Uzbeks.

In the late 17th and early 18th cent., the vigorous young Ch’ing
dynasty of China controlled E Turkistan, but it gradually lost more and
more territory to Russia, whose troops invaded the khanate of Kokand in
1865 and took Tashkent. A military administration under a Russian
governor-general was established in 1867 in the conquered territories.
In 1868 the emir of Bukhara and the khan of Khiva were forced to accept
a Russian protectorate. An Anglo-Russian treaty of 1881 designated the
southern limits of Russian rule in the area. Harsh Russian
administration sparked frequent native revolts, but they were

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Turkistan Autonomous
Soviet Republic (1918) and the Bukhara and Khorezm soviet republics
(1920) were set up in the region. However, in 1924 the southern part of
Russian Turkistan was divided along geographical and ethnic lines into
new divisions—the Uzbek SSR (now Uzbekistan), the Turkmen SSR (now
Turkmenistan), the Tadzhik SSR (a union republic as of 1929, now
Tajikistan), the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (made an autonomous republic
in 1926 and a union republic in 1936, now Kyrgyzstan), and the
Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblast (made an autonomous republic in 1932, now
the Karakalpak Republic , Uzbekistan); the northern part of Turkistan
was included in the Kazakh SSR (now Kazakhstan). During Soviet rule,
the term Russian Turkistan was officially replaced with Soviet Central

Author not available, TURKISTAN., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth
Edition 2006

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2006 Columbia
University Press

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